BP, EP and USP
The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) and National Formulary (NF) are the official standards for all prescription and over-the-counter medicines, dietary supplements, excipients and other healthcare products manufactured and sold in the United States. We can test USP chemicals, USP test solutions, USP volumetric solutions and USP Reagents and test chemicals to other worldwide medicinal standards including BP chemicals (British Pharmacopoeia), EP chemicals (European Pharmacopoeia)
Solid dose, liquids, semi-solids
Solid-state chemistry, also sometimes referred to as materials chemistry, is the study of the synthesis, structure, and properties of solid phase materials, particularly, but not necessarily exclusively of, non-molecular solids.
A liquid is one state in which matter can exist. A liquid can take the shape of any container it is placed in (unlike a solid), but the volume of the liquid will always remain constant (unlike a gas).
Semi-solds have a viscosity and rigidity intermediate between that of a solid and a liquid
Gas chromatography (GC), is a common type of chromatography used in analytical chemistry for separating and analyzing compounds that can be vaporized without decomposition.
Headspace GC is used for the analysis of volatile and semi-volatile organics in solid, liquid and gas samples. The popularity of this technique has grown over recent years and has now gained worldwide acceptance for analyses of alcohols in blood and residual solvents in pharmaceutical products.
Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-DAD, or alternatively HPLC-DAD) is an analytical chemistry technique that combines the physical separation capabilities of liquid chromatography (or HPLC). Its application is oriented towards the separation, general detection and potential identification of chemicals e.g., natural products from natural-products extracts, and pure substances from mixtures of chemical intermediates. UV detectors, fixed or variable wavelength, which includes diode array detector (DAD). The UV absorption of the effluent is continuously measured at single or multiple wavelengths. These are by far most popular detectors for LC.
Thin Layer Chromatography
Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a chromatography technique used to separate non-volatile mixtures. Thin-layer chromatography is performed on a sheet of glass, plastic, or aluminium foil, which is coated with a thin layer of adsorbent material, usually silica gel, aluminium oxide, or cellulose.
The relative density is the ratio of the mass of the substance in air at 20 °C to that of an equal volume of water at the same temperature. The term "relative density" is equivalent to the formerly used term "specific gravity determined at 20 °C". Changes speed as it passes from one medium to another.
The refractive index varies with the wavelength of light. This is called dispersion and causes the splitting of white light into its constituent colors in prisms and rainbows, and chromatic aberration in lenses
Water content (Karl Fischer)
Karl Fischer titration is a classic titration method in analytical chemistry that uses coulometric or volumetric titration to determine trace amounts of water in a sample. It was invented in 1935 by the German chemist Karl Fischer
Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy or ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis or UV/Vis) refers to absorption spectroscopy or reflectance spectroscopy in the ultraviolet-visible spectral region. This means it uses light in the visible and adjacent (near-UV and near-infrared [NIR]) ranges. The absorption or reflectance in the visible range directly affects the perceived color of the chemicals involved. In this region of the electromagnetic spectrum, molecules undergo electronic transitions. This technique is complementary to fluorescence spectroscopy, in that fluorescence deals with transitions from the excited state to the ground state, while absorption measures transitions from the ground state to the excited state
Dissolution is the process by which a solute forms a solution in a solvent. The solute, in the case of solids, has its crystalline structure disintegrated as separate ions, atoms, and molecules form. For liquids and gases, the molecules must be adaptable with those of the solvent for a solution to form.
The condition of being friable, describes the ability of a solid substance to be reduced to smaller pieces with little effort, especially by rubbing.
Hardness is a measure of how resistant solid matter is to various kinds of permanent shape change when a compressive force is applied. Some materials, such as metal, are harder than others. Macroscopic hardness is generally characterized by strong intermolecular bonds, but the behavior of solid materials under force is complex; therefore, there are different measurements of hardness: scratch hardness, indentation hardness, and rebound hardness.
Hardness is dependent on ductility, elastic stiffness, plasticity, strain, strength, toughness, viscoelasticity, and viscosity.